Intracranial electrophysiological recording in humans has been a long-standing technique in neurosurgical treatment for epilepsy. Due to the clinical constraints as well as the necessity to map critical language sites prior to resection of tissue, electrode coverage often involves brain areas relevant for language function. This cortical sampling as well as the excellent temporal and spatial resolution provided by intracranial recordings have made the technique particularly important for our understanding of how the human brain processes speech and language. This chapter provides an introduction to the technique and describes how it historically contributed to language mapping. Furthermore, it discusses the advantages and disadvantages of intracranial recordings as a research tool and illustrates the use of the technique with examples of novel findings and approaches in the area of language processing.